This blog tackles economic related issues on finance, commerce, people, culture and politics.
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Thursday, November 29, 2012

The Nigerian Export Processing Zones Scheme


The Nigerian Export Processing Zones Scheme

INTRODUCTION The enabling law for the establishment and lanagement of the Export Processing Zones (EPZ) scheme in Nigeria is the Nigerian Export Processing Zones Authority Decree No. 63 of 1992. By this decree, administration of the Nigerian EPZ programme is vested in the Nigerian Export Processing Zones Authority (NEPZA). NEPZA is thus, empowered to grant all requisite permits and approvals tor operators in EPZs to the exclusion of all other government agencies and bodies.The regulatory regime tor EPZs in Nigeria is liberal and provides a conducive environment for profitable operations. The incentives available to operators in Nigeria's EPZs compare favourably with the most attractive elsewhere in the world and are the best in the region. They include one hun dred per cent foreign ownership of investments, "one stop" approvals, no import or export licenses, duty free import of raw materials, unrestricted remit tance of capital profits and dividends, tax holidays and no strikes. The country's pioneer EPZ is the Calabar Processing Zone.
The Calabar EPZ provides investors with one of the most suitable sites for export manufacture in Africa. The Zone provides serviced industrial and administrative facilities at the most competitive rates obtainable for facilities of such standards in Africa. In addition to public supplies of such utilities as power, water and telecommunications, the zone has its own private back-up supply of these essen tial utilities and services.
Calabar, the city in which the EPZ is sited, is an ancient and historic city with an enviable past, hav ing served as the capital of the Southern Protectorate of Nigeria before the amalgamation of the Northern and Southern Protectorates in 1914.
The serene and beautiful city served as the centre of operations for the Royal Niger Company during the hey days of the oil palm trade as well as being an age-long centre of learning. It is present ly the capital of Cross River State in south-east Nigeria and is fondly referred to as the "Canaan City, the biblical land flowing with milk and honey." Although one is not likely to actually find milk and honey flowing on the streets of this clean, enchant ing and alluring city, one will definitely discover the warmth and hospitality of the people of Calabar in abundance.
There are other attributes which make the choice of Calabar as the site of Nigeria's pioneer EPZ an excellent one. The city has good road links with other parts of the country and is traversed by the Trans-African Highway, a major gateway to the Republic of Cameroun and other countries of Central Africa. Its modem seaport adjoining the EPZ is of special advantage and will result in signif icant savings for shipping and haulage services for investors in the Zone. The city's international air port is less than twenty minutes drive from the site of the Calabar EPZ.
Several airlines provide Calabar with interna tional and local air travel services. ADC Airlines the major operator from Calabar Airport - operates daily domestic flights to and from Lagos and Port Harcourt, with connecting international flights to destinations in Africa. The airline also operates flights to Ghana, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea. Nigeria Airways flies to Calabar enroute to Equatorial Guinea and Cameroun. Another private airline, Skyline, offers daily services to and from Lagos and Enugu.
Calabar and its environs have a pool of skilled and trainable manpower with significant industrial experience. Such manpower is availably at very competitive rates, which rank among the lowest in the world. There are several institutions of higher learning in Calabar and its environs which provide university, technical and vocational education. If the need arises, these institutions can provide any special training needs and support services that producers in the Zone may need. Industrial activity in Calabar is largely in natural resource-based industries such as oil palm,wood, limestone, rubber, cocoa and coffee.
However, activities in the oil and gas industry, especially the Aluminium Smelting Plant in near-by Ikot Abasi and the activities of Mobil Producing Nigeria Unlimited, based in nearby Eket, offer prospects for linkages between manu facturers in the Calabar EPZ and these industries. Moreover, the disposition of its people, its rich history, culture and several natural attractions make Calabar an ideal tourist location. Attractions in Calabar and within surrounding towns in Cross River State include the Agbokim Water Falls, Qua Falls, the Gorilla Sanctuary in the Kanyang National FACILITIES WITHIN THE ZONE
Facilities available under the Calabar EPZ are as follows:
(a) Serviced plots; (b) Uninterrupted power and water supply; (c) Modern and efficient telecommunica tions system; (d) Excellent internal road network; (e) Built-up Factory space; (f) Modern catering and recreational facili ties; (g) Banking Services; and (h) Customs Services. INDUSTRIES PERMITTED WITHIN THE ZONE
Industries permitted within the Calabar EPZ are the following:
(a) Electrical and Electronic Products; (b) Textile Products; (c) Garments Production; (d) Wood Products and Handicrafts; (e) Leather Products; (f) Petroleum Products; (g) Rubber and Plastic Products; (h) Cosmetics and other Chemical Products; (i) Metal Products and Machinery; (i') Educational Materials and Sports Equipment; (k) Printing Materials, Communication and Office Equipment; (1) Medical Kits, Optical Instruments and Appliances; (m) Biscuits, Confectioneries and other Food Processing; and , (n) Pharmaceutical Products. Proposals for industries outside the above list ings will be considered on their individual merit.
The following is a summary of procedures 7. which an investor will normally follow in establishing an industry under the Calabar EPZ:
1 Inquiries and obtaining Investment application g form
2.Inspection of built-up factory space and serv iced industrial plots 3.Submission of Investment application form 4.Processing of application form 5.Where application is approved, apply for com pany registration. 6.(a)Outright purchase of built-up stan dard factory: Payment for the purchase shall be made as follows:
- 10 per cent of the purchase price within 3 months of execu tion of purchase agreement. - The balance of 90 per cent, 5 months after.
(b) Rent of built-up factory space: Rent shall be paid as follows:
- One year rent upon execution of rental agreement. Thereafter, rent shall be payable annually.
(c)Lease of built-up standard factory: Rent for the lease shall be paid in 3 pay ments as follows:
- 40 per cent of the rent payable for the lease on or before execu tion of lease. - 30 per cent of the rent for the lease on or before the end of the 5th year of the lease. - 30 per cent of the rent payable for the lease on or before the end of the 10th year of the lease.
(d) Lease of service plots: Rent for the lease shall be paid as follows:
- 40 per cent of the rent payable for the lease on approval of fac tory construction. - 30 per cent of rent payable for the lease at the end of the 5th year of the lease. - 30 per cent of rent payable for the lease at the end of thelOth year of the lease. 7.Remittance of Investment Capital. 8.Assessment of Investment outlay. 9.Pre-production inspection of factory building,plant and machineries before commencement of production. 10. Obtain certificate to sell 25 per cent of produc tion in the domestic market.CONCLUSION In addition to all the above, Nigeria's continued commitment to the implementation of liberal eco nomic policies that will enhance the development and growth of the export sector coupled with the Naira's favourable exchange rate for exports pro vide an excellent opportunity for profitable export production from the Calabar EPZ.

Tuesday, November 27, 2012


A short review on my researches

Channels and Intermediaries

Distribution of products takes place by means of channels. Channels are sets of interdependent organisations (called intermediaries) involved in making the product available for consumption.[1] Merchants are intermediaries that buy and resell products. Agents and brokers are intermediaries that act on behalf of the producer but do not take title to the products.
[edit]Channel Design

A firm can design any number of channels. Channels are classified by the number of intermediaries between producer and consumer.[1] A level zero channel has no intermediaries. This is typical of direct marketing. A level one channel has a single intermediary. This flow is typically from manufacturer to retailer to consumer.
[edit]Distribution Types

Intensive distribution means the producer's products are stocked in the majority of outlets.[1] This strategy is common for basic supplies, snack foods, magazines and soft drink beverages.
Selective distribution means that the producer relies on a few intermediaries to carry their product.[1] This strategy is commonly observed for more specialised goods that are carried through specialist dealers, for example, brands of craft tools, or large appliances.
Exclusive distribution means that the producer selects only very few intermediaries.[1] Exclusive distribution is often characterised by exclusive dealing where the reseller carries only that producer's products to the exclusion of all others. This strategy is typical of luxury goods retailers such as Gucci.
Channel Mix

In practice, many organizations use a mix of different channels; in particular, they may complement a direct sales-force, calling on the larger accounts, with agents, covering the smaller customers and prospects. In addition, online retailing or e-commerce is leading to disintermediation. Retailing via smartphone or m-commerce is also a growing area.
Managing Channels

The firm's marketing department needs to design the most suitable channels for the firm's products, then select appropriate channel members or intermediaries. The firm needs to train staff of intermediaries and motivate the intermediary to sell the firm's products. The firm should monitor the channel's performance over time and modify the channel to enhance performance.
Channel Motivation
To motivate intermediaries the firm can use positive actions, such as offering higher margins to the intermediary, special deals, premiums and allowances for advertising or display.[1] On the other hand, negative actions may be necessary, such as threatening to cut back on margin, or hold back delivery of product.
Channel Conflict
Channel conflict can arise when one intermediary's actions prevent another intermediary from achieving their objectives.[1] Vertical channel conflict occurs between the levels within a channel and horizontal channel conflict occurs between intermediaries at the same level within a channel.

Thursday, November 15, 2012


Jerome Etim: HELP PREVENT TERRORIST ATTACK: The best way to keep our communities and society safe from extremist are for us been our brothers' keepers. This is a message that bears r...


The best way to keep our communities and society safe from extremist are for us been our brothers' keepers.

ctseal.gifThis is a message that bears repeating, no matter where you live in the world: Your assistance is needed in preventing terrorist acts.
It's a fact that certain kinds of activities can indicate terrorist plans that are in the works, especially when they occur at or near high profile sites or places where large numbers of people gather--like government buildings, military facilities, utilities, bus or train stations, major public events. If you see or know about suspicious activities, like the ones listed below, please report them immediately to the proper authorities. In Nigeria, that means your closest Joint Terrorist Task Force, located in an SSS Field Office. In other countries, that means your closest law enforcement/counterterrorism agency.
Surveillance: Are you aware of anyone video recording or monitoring activities, taking notes, using cameras, maps, binoculars, etc., near key facilities/events?
Suspicious Questioning: Are you aware of anyone attempting to gain information in person, by phone, mail, email, etc., regarding a key facility or people who work there?
Tests of Security: Are you aware of any attempts to penetrate or test physical security or procedures at a key facility/event?
Acquiring Supplies: Are you aware of anyone attempting to improperly acquire explosives, weapons, ammunition, dangerous chemicals, uniforms, badges, flight manuals, access cards or identification for a key facility/event or to legally obtain items under suspicious circumstances that could be used in a terrorist attack?
Suspicious Persons: Are you aware of anyone who does not appear to belong in the workplace, neighborhood, business establishment or near a key facility/event?
"Dry Runs": Have you observed any behavior that appears to be preparation for a terrorist act, such as mapping out routes, playing out scenarios with other people, monitoring key facilities/events, timing traffic lights or traffic flow, or other suspicious activities?
Deploying Assets: Have you observed abandoned vehicles, stockpiling of suspicious materials, or persons being deployed near a key facility/event?
If you answered yes to any of the above...if you have observed any suspicious activity that may relate to terrorism...again, please contact the Joint Terrorist Task Force or law enforcement/counterterrorism agency closest to you immediately. Your tip could save the lives of innocent people, just like you and yours.

Saturday, November 10, 2012

Biography of Victor Moses

The clinical overview of the blistering career of the new jay jay okocha of Nigerian football

Victor Moses

Victor Moses (born 12 December 1990) is a Nigerian footballer who plays for Premier League club Chelsea. Moses can play in a variety of positions, but in the first-team games he has taken part in so far, Moses has mostly played as a left winger. Born in Nigeria, he has represented England at under-16under-17under-19 and under-21 levels, but opted to play for theNigerian national football team as opposed to being fully capped at England level.

Club career

Crystal Palace

Born in Nigeria, Moses moved to England at the age of 13.[3] He attended Stanley Technical High School (now known as the Harris Academy) inSouth Norwood, during which time he was scouted playing football in the local Tandridge League, where scouts from Crystal Palace approached him, with the club's Selhurst Park stadium just streets away from his school, Stanley Technical High. The scouts were so impressed that he was offered a place in the Eagles' academy, which he accepted.
Shortly after Moses joined their academy, Palace recommended him to the fee-paying Whitgift School in Croydon where former Palace player and coach Steve Kember and former Arsenal and Chelsea star Colin Pates had been coaching the school football team, in the hope that the higher quality coaching and facilities at Whitgift would further improve his development as a player.
He first came to prominence at 14 after scoring 50 goals for Palace's under-14s side he played along side Joe Szekeres for 3 years scoring over 100 goals between them, as well as helping Whitgift win many School Cups, including a National Cup, scoring all five goals in the final against Healing School of Grimsby at the Walkers Stadium, Leicester.[3]
He made his debut in The Championship on 6 November 2007 away from home against Cardiff. In the Palace first team Moses settled down well, scoring 3 times in his first season and settling into the squad well. In the close season Moses committed his future to Palace, signing a four-year contract to take him through until 2012,[4] but the following season failed to ever really get going however, and despite a sustained period of starting matches he only managed to score twice.

Wigan Athletic

It was the 2009–10 season where he really came to prominence, when a run of five goals in eight games for the Eagles saw him become the hottest property of the January transfer window. On the final day of it he completed a £2.5 million transfer to Premier League side Wigan Athletic after Palace went into administration.[5] He made his debut on 6 February 2010 as a substitute against Sunderland in a 1–1 draw.[6] On 20 March 2010, Moses came on as a substitute against Burnley and got his first assist for the club, setting up team mate Hugo Rodallega for an injury time winner.[7] He scored his first goal for Wigan on 3 May 2010 against Hull City.[8]
Moses picked up two injuries at the start of the 2010–11 season,[9] and found it difficult to make it back into the first-team due to increased competition for places. He scored his first league goal of the season on 13 November 2010 in a 1–0 win against West Bromwich Albion.[10]
Following the departure of Charles N'Zogbia, Moses became a regular starter for Wigan in the 2011–12 season. On 10 December 2011, he scored his first goal of the season against West Bromwich Albion – his first goal since scoring against the same team last season.


On 23 August 2012, Wigan Athletic accepted a fifth bid from Chelsea, after they finally met Wigan's asking price after four previously unsuccessful bids. The player was given permission to speak with Chelsea.[11] On 24 August 2012 Chelsea announced that the transfer of Moses had been completed.[12] Moses played his first game for Chelsea, coming on a substituteagainst Queens Park Rangers. Moses made his full debut for Chelseawhen he started the League Cup game against Wolves and scored his first goal after 71 minutes, the game finished 6–0 to the Blues. [13] Moses started his first Champions League game against Nordsj√¶lland. On 31 October 2012, Moses was named Man of the Match of the match against Manchester United in the Capital One Cup, a game Chelsea won 5–4.[14] On 3 November 2012, Moses scored his first Premier League goal for Chelsea against Swansea City which ended in a 1–1 draw.[15] Four days later, he scored his first Champions League goal for Chelsea againts Shakhtar Donetsk; Moses replaced Oscar in the 80th minute and headed in Juan Mata's corner with seconds left to secure a 3–2 win.[16]

International career


U-16 and U-17 level

Despite originally hailing from Nigeria Moses initially chose to represent his adopted home of England, featuring for the under-16 team, in which he won the Victory Shield in 2005, and under-17 level. He travelled with the squad to the 2007 UEFA European U-17 Championship in Belgium, scoring three times (including the only goal in the semi-final win overFrance) to help John Peacock's side to the competition final, where they were narrowly beaten by a single goal by Spain, though Moses managed to finish as the competition's top scorer and collect the Golden Boot for doing so.
That same summer the squad travelled to South Korea for the FIFA U-17 World Cup. Moses finished as the Young Lions' top scorer, netting three times in the Group B fixtures, but sustained an injury in the victory overBrazil that ruled him out of the competition. Moses' teammates went on to reach the quarterfinal stage.


Following that tournament Moses was promoted to the under-18 squad, and following his goalscoring exploits for Palace's first-team, he was promoted to the under-19 side without appearing sufficiently for the U-18s to actually collect a cap. He went with the U-19s to the 2008 UEFA European U-19 Championship in the Czech Republic, playing two matches and picking up one assist as the Young Lions failed to make it out of Group B. Speculation grew as Stuart Pearce snubbed him that Moses would return to play for Nigeria in the 2010 World Cup, this move never materialised.


Moses was promoted to the under-21 squad at the beginning of the 2010-2011 Premier League season and made his debut against Uzbekistan in a 2–0 win.[17]


Moses was selected to play for Nigeria against Guatemala in February 2011, but the friendly was cancelled.[18] He accepted a call-up in March 2011 for Nigeria's games against Ethiopia and Kenya.[19] However, he was ruled out of those games because his application to FIFA to switch nationalities was not received in time. It was announced on 1 November 2011, that FIFA had cleared Moses and Shola Ameobi to play for Nigeria.[20] He made his Eagles debut as a substitute on 29 February 2012 againstRwanda. He scored his first goal for Nigeria in a 6–1 whitewashing of Liberia in an AFCON 2013 qualifying match, scoring a brace. One of the goals was via a cross from Chelsea team-mate, John Obi Mikel.

Club career statistics

As of 7 November 2012

International career statistics

As of 1 March 2010



External links

Thursday, November 8, 2012

The common man

 The common man is a general name for a poor and unpopular males in my country, I am from a country where the standard of living is very Low and over 70% of the nation's population lives below a dollar a day. Most of Nigerians cannot afford the luxury and cost of living including healthcare, eduction, balance diet, housing, and electricity because the cost of these basic items are regarded as luxuries yet in order part of the world this are basic necesicities for citizens of the country.  The recent flooding in the country has so much affected the common man because the are percieved to be living in the low land areas, rural areas, undeveloped areas and environmental degraded areas. Over 300 lives has been lost and the temporilay camps built by Government to cater for the immediate needs of the common man and his family which are always at an average of abover four children has become a political arena where political campaign in view of the 2015 ambitions of their fat pockets. The higher education are kept at the highest cost which the common man cant afford, so the paupers and their children doesn't pass secondary school certificates. Educational grants are won by the elites who can afford this luxury schools abroad for their kids but yet would block this grants from getting to the common man. The common man doesn't only suffer from lack of basic amenities from Government, but also extortion from churches and religious organistions in the name of tithes, offerings, sacrifices and breakthrough seeds. This religious bodies extorts from the unenglithened Nigerians using the bible. The common man in my country of a population of over 150million according to the last population census conducted also suffer poor service delivery from telecommunication firms who bills this section of the economy more without providing the paid services. For examples, the common man loads the highest number of recharge cards yet the network is never clear for a decent phone call. The common man pays a huge electricity bills yet PHCN would not provide the light paid for, thereby hindering the small scale businesses of the common man which are either barbering, tailoring, weldering, vulcanicing, restaurants, etc. the livelihood of the common man is centered on these basic amenities yet enjoyed by the rich class. The common man travels by road yet the inter-state express ways are filled with potholes and bad roads, the common man uses electricity for his daily operation of his businesses yet the PHCN for the pass 50years can not provide uninterrupted power for 3hours, the common man does not ever win a court case against the rich or influential sections of Nigerians, they are believed to be common Nigerians and the National Assembly don't deliberate on bills that empowers a common man. I am a common man and a common Nigeria, and I therefore speak for all the commoners in my country and thousands of them that are killed everyday by police brutality, Boko Haram bombings, Political killings, hunger and starvation, Ill health, malnutrition, fake drugs, etc. we are Nigerians too and the huge resources of the country through crude oil and other natural resources are not meant for only a few people